Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The Company records investment properties and related intangibles at cost or fair value upon acquisition less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Investment properties include both acquired and constructed assets. Improvements and major repairs and maintenance are capitalized when the repair and maintenance substantially extends the useful life, increases capacity or improves the efficiency of the asset. All other repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. The Company capitalizes interest on projects during periods of construction until the projects reach the completion point that corresponds with their intended purpose.
The Company allocates the purchase price of acquisitions to the various components of the asset based upon the fair value of each component which may be derived from various observable or unobservable inputs and assumptions. Also, the Company may utilize third party valuation specialists. These components typically include buildings, land and any intangible assets related to out-of-market leases, tenant relationships and in-place leases the Company determines to exist. The Company determines fair value based on estimated cash flow projections that utilize appropriate discount and capitalization rates and available market information. Estimates of future cash flows are based on a number of factors including the historical operating results, known trends and specific market and economic conditions that may affect the property. Factors considered by management in the analysis of determining the as-if-vacant property value include an estimate of carrying costs during the expected lease-up periods considering market conditions, and costs to execute similar leases. In estimating carrying costs, management includes real estate taxes, insurance and estimates of lost rentals at market rates during the expected lease-up periods, tenant demand and other economic conditions. Management also estimates costs to execute similar leases including leasing commissions, tenant improvements, legal and other related expenses. Intangibles related to out-of-market leases, tenant relationships and in-place lease value are recorded as acquired lease intangibles and are amortized as an adjustment to rental revenue or amortization expense, as appropriate, over the remaining terms of the underlying leases. Premiums or discounts on acquired out-of-market debt are amortized to interest expense over the remaining term of such debt.
The Company records depreciation on buildings and improvements utilizing the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset, generally 5 to 40 years. The Company reviews depreciable lives of investment properties periodically and makes adjustments to reflect a shorter economic life, when necessary. Tenant allowances, tenant inducements and tenant improvements are amortized utilizing the straight-line method over the term of the related lease or occupancy term of the tenant, if shorter.
Amounts allocated to buildings are depreciated over the estimated remaining life of the acquired building or related improvements. The Company amortizes amounts allocated to tenant improvements, in-place lease assets and other lease-related intangibles over the remaining life of the underlying leases. The Company also estimates the value of other acquired intangible assets, if any, and amortizes them over the remaining life of the underlying related intangibles.
The Company reviews investment properties for impairment on a property-by-property basis whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of investment properties may not be recoverable, but at least annually. These circumstances include, but are not limited to, declines in the property’s cash flows, occupancy and fair market value. The Company measures any impairment of investment property when the estimated undiscounted operating income before depreciation and amortization, plus its residual value, is less than the carrying value of the property. To the extent impairment has occurred, the Company charges to income the excess of the carrying value of the property over its estimated fair value. The Company estimates fair value using unobservable data such as operating income, estimated capitalization rates, or multiples, leasing prospects and local market information. The Company may decide to sell properties that are held for use and the sale prices of these properties may differ from their carrying values. The Company did not record any impairment adjustments to its properties during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of 90 days or less or investments easily converted into known amounts of cash to be cash and cash equivalents without a significant cost to the Company. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair value. Cash equivalents consist primarily of bank operating accounts and money markets. Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk include its cash and cash equivalents and its trade accounts receivable. The Company places its cash and cash equivalents with institutions of high credit quality.
Restricted cash represents amounts held by lenders for real estate taxes, insurance, reserves for capital improvements and tenant security deposits. The Company presents changes in cash restricted for real estate taxes, insurance and tenant security deposits as operating activities in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows. The Company presents changes in cash restricted for capital improvements as investing activities in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows.
The Company places its cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash on deposit with financial institutions in the United States and the amounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Company (“FDIC”) up to $250,000. The Company's credit loss in the event of failure of these financial institutions is represented by the difference between the FDIC limit and the total amounts on deposit. Management monitors the financial institutions credit worthiness in conjunction with balances on deposit to minimize risk.
Tenant Receivables and Unbilled Rent
Tenant receivables include base rents, tenant reimbursements and receivables attributable to recording rents on a straight-line basis. The Company determines an allowance for the uncollectible portion of accrued rents and accounts receivable based upon customer credit-worthiness (including expected recovery of a claim with respect to any tenants in bankruptcy), historical bad debt levels, and current economic trends. The Company considers a receivable past due once it becomes delinquent per the terms of the lease. The Company’s standard lease form considers a rent charge past due after five days. A past due receivable triggers certain events such as notices, fees and other allowable and required actions per the lease. As of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company’s allowance for uncollectible accounts totaled $419,807 and $411,394, respectively. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, the Company recorded bad debt expenses in the amount of $31,330 and $196,311, respectively, related to tenant receivables that were specifically identified as potentially uncollectible based on an assessment of the tenant’s credit-worthiness. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, the Company recorded bad debt expenses in the amount of $112,580 and $214,316, respectively. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, the Company did not realize any recoveries related to tenant receivables previously written off.
Above and Below Market Lease Intangibles, net
The Company determines the above and below market lease intangibles upon acquiring a property. Above and below market lease intangibles are amortized over the life of the respective leases. Amortization of above and below market lease intangibles is recorded as a component of rental revenues.
Deferred Costs and Other Assets, net
The Company’s deferred costs and other assets consist primarily of leasing commissions, capitalized legal and marketing costs and tenant relationship intangibles associated with acquisitions. The Company’s lease origination costs consist primarily of the portion of property acquisitions allocated to lease originations and commissions paid in connection with lease originations.
Details of these deferred costs, net of amortization, and other assets are as follows:
Amortization of lease origination costs, leases in place and legal and marketing costs represents a component of depreciation and amortization expense. As of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company’s intangible accumulated amortization totaled $25,722,802 and $16,595,092, respectively. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, the Company’s intangible amortization expense totaled $2,996,840 and $9,555,167, respectively. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, the Company's intangible amortization expense totaled $3,403,239 and $8,121,491, respectively. Future amortization of lease origination costs, leases in place, legal and marketing costs and tenant relationships is as follows (unaudited):
The Company retains substantially all of the risks and benefits of ownership of the investment properties and accounts for its leases as operating leases. The Company accrues minimum rents on a straight-line basis over the terms of the respective leases which results in an unbilled rent asset or deferred rent liability being recorded on the balance sheet. Additionally, certain of the lease agreements contain provisions that grant additional rents based on tenants’ sales volumes (contingent or percentage rent). Percentage rents are recognized when the tenants achieve the specified targets as defined in their lease agreements. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, the Company recognized percentage rents of $57,682 and $214,225, respectively. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, the Company recognized percentage rents of $27,179 and $63,326, respectively.
The Company’s leases generally require the tenant to reimburse the Company for a substantial portion of its expenses incurred in operating, maintaining, repairing, insuring and managing the shopping center and common areas (collectively defined as Common Area Maintenance or “CAM” expenses). The Company includes these reimbursements, along with other revenue derived from late fees and seasonal events, under the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations caption "Tenant reimbursements and other revenues." This significantly reduces the Company’s exposure to increases in costs and operating expenses resulting from inflation or other outside factors. The Company accrues reimbursements from tenants for recoverable portions of all these expenses as revenue in the period the applicable expenditures are incurred. The Company calculates the tenant’s share of operating costs by multiplying the total amount of the operating costs by a fraction, the numerator of which is the total number of square feet being leased by the tenant, and the denominator of which is the total square footage of all leasable buildings at the property. The Company also receives escrow payments for these reimbursements from substantially all its tenants throughout the year. The Company recognizes differences between estimated recoveries and the final billed amounts in the subsequent year. These differences were not material for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
The Company recognizes lease termination fees in the period that the lease is terminated and collection of the fees is reasonably assured. Upon early lease termination, the Company provides for losses related to unrecovered intangibles and other assets. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, the Company recognized lease termination fees of $0 and $25,674, respectively. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, the Company recognized lease termination fees of $0 and $0, respectively.
The Company has elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code and applicable Treasury regulations relating to REIT qualification. In order to maintain this REIT status, the regulations require the Company to distribute at least 90% of its taxable income to shareholders and meet certain other asset and income tests, as well as other requirements. Thus, the Company made no provision for federal income taxes for the REIT in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements. If the Company fails to qualify as a REIT, it will be subject to tax at regular corporate rates for the years in which it failed to qualify. If the Company loses its REIT status, it could not elect to be taxed as a REIT for five years unless the Company’s failure to qualify was due to a reasonable cause and certain other conditions were satisfied. As the REIT was formed in November 2012, it is subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service and state tax authorities from the date of formation.
Taxable REIT Subsidiary Cost Allocation
The Company’s overall philosophy regarding cost allocation centers around the premise that the Trust exists to acquire, lease and manage properties for the benefit of its investors. Accordingly, a majority of the Company’s operations occur at the property level. Each property must carry its own weight by absorbing the costs associated with generating its revenues. Additionally, leases generally allow the Company to pass through to the tenant most of the costs involved in operating the property, including, but not limited to, the direct costs associated with owning and maintaining the property (landscaping, repairs and maintenance, taxes, insurance, etc.), property management and certain administrative costs.
Service vendors bill the majority of the direct costs of operating the properties directly to the REIT Properties and Non-REIT Properties and each property pays them accordingly. The Non-REIT Properties pay WRE property management and/or asset management fees of 3% and 2% of collected revenues, respectively. The Non-REIT Properties also pay WRE leasing commissions based on the total contractual revenues to be generated under the new/renewed lease agreement (6% for new leases and 3% for renewals). Non-REIT properties pay development fees of 5% of hard costs.
Compensation and benefits paid to employees of the Company represent the largest component of costs incurred to acquire, manage, lease and administer the properties. The Company believes that every employee position exists to either directly or indirectly perform these functions. Therefore, the Company allocates compensation and benefits to the various functions of the Company based on an estimate of how each employee spends their time. The Company allocates actual costs attributed to property management costs to the TRS on a pro rata basis based on total property revenues generated by the Non-REIT Properties. The Company allocates actual leasing costs to the TRS on a pro rata basis based on total leasing commissions generated by the Non-REIT Properties. Currently, the TRS does not acquire properties for third parties so the Company does not allocate acquisition related costs to the TRS.
The carrying amount of financial instruments included in assets and liabilities approximates fair market value due to their immediate or short-term maturity.
Use of Estimates
The Company has made estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and revenues and expenses during the reported periods. The Company’s actual results could differ from these estimates.
The Company expenses advertising and promotion costs as incurred. The Company incurred advertising and promotion costs of $23,002 and $175,887 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, respectively. The Company incurred advertising and promotion costs of $44,376 and $152,338 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, respectively.
Assets Held For Sale
The Company records assets as held for sale when management has committed to a plan to sell the assets, actively seeks a buyer for the assets, and the consummation of the sale is considered probable and is expected within one year.
Corporate General and Administrative Expense
A detail for the "corporate general & administrative" line item from the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations is presented below:
Noncontrolling interests is the portion of equity in the Operating Partnership not attributable to the Trust. The ownership interests not held by the parent are considered noncontrolling interests. Accordingly, noncontrolling interests have been reported in equity on the condensed consolidated balance sheets but separate from the Company’s equity. On the condensed consolidated statements of operations, the subsidiaries are reported at the consolidated amount, including both the amount attributable to the Company and noncontrolling interests. Condensed consolidated statement of equity includes beginning balances, activity for the period and ending balances for shareholders’ equity, noncontrolling interests and total equity.
The noncontrolling interest of the Operating Partnership common unit holders is calculated by multiplying the noncontrolling interest ownership percentage at the balance sheet date by the Operating Partnership’s net assets (total assets less total liabilities). The noncontrolling interest percentage is calculated at any point in time by dividing the number of units not owned by the Company by the total number of units outstanding. The noncontrolling interest ownership percentage will change as additional units are issued or as units are exchanged for the Company’s common stock $0.01 par value per share (“common stock”). In accordance with GAAP, any changes in the value from period to period are charged to additional paid-in capital.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 605, “Revenue Recognition” and most industry-specific guidance on revenue recognition throughout the ASC. The new standard is principles based and provides a five step model to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The core principle of the new standard is that revenue should be recognized when a company transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard also requires disclosure of qualitative and quantitative information surrounding the amount, nature, timing and uncertainty of revenues and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net), which clarifies the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations. In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-10, "Revenue from contracts with customers (Topic 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing," which provides further guidance on identifying performance obligations and intellectual property licensing implementation. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-12, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients”, which relates to assessing collectability, presentation of sales taxes, noncash consideration and completed contracts and contract modifications in transition. Companies are permitted to adopt the ASUs as early as fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, but the adoption is required for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. These new standards will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of the year ended December 31, 2018 and can be applied either retrospectively to all periods presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption of the new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, "Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40)." This ASU defines management's responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an organization's ability to continue as a going concern and provides guidance on required financial statement footnote disclosures. This ASU is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016. The Company will adopt this ASU as of December 31, 2016 and use its guidance when evaluating whether there is substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-03, "Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs." This new guidance requires the presentation of unamortized debt issuance costs to be shown in the liabilities section of the consolidated balance sheets as a reduction of the principal amount of the associated debt, rather than as an asset. ASU 2015-03 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015 and early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The new standard must be applied using a retrospective approach by restating prior period comparative consolidated balance sheets. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2016 and applied it on a retrospective basis for all debt issuance costs, including those pertaining to the Company’s revolving credit facility. As a result, unamortized debt issuance costs of $4.71 million as of December 31, 2015 have been reclassified from other assets and presented as a deduction of indebtedness in the condensed consolidated balance sheet.
In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-16, "Business Combinations (Topic 805): Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments." This new guidance requires that the acquirer recognizes adjustments to preliminary acquisition values and account for the cumulative effect of any required adjustments in the period in which they are determined. ASU 2015-16 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015 and early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The new standard must be applied using a prospective approach for adjustments that occur after the effective date. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2016.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)." ASU 2016-02 is intended to improve financial reporting about leasing transactions. The ASU affects all companies and other organizations that lease assets such as real estate, airplanes, and manufacturing equipment. The ASU will require organizations that lease assets referred to as “Lessees” to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases. An organization is to provide disclosures designed to enable users of financial statements to understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. These disclosures include qualitative and quantitative requirements concerning additional information about the amounts recorded in the financial statements. Under the new guidance, a lessee will be required to recognize assets and liabilities for leases with lease terms of more than 12 months. Consistent with current GAAP, the recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee primarily will depend on its classification as a finance or operating lease. However, unlike current GAAP which requires only capital leases to be recognized on the balance sheet the new ASU will require both types of leases (i.e. operating and capital) to be recognized on the balance sheet. The FASB lessee accounting model will continue to account for both types of leases. The capital lease will be accounted for in substantially the same manner as capital leases are accounted for under existing GAAP. The operating lease will be accounted for in a manner similar to operating leases under existing GAAP, except that lessees will recognize a lease liability and a lease asset for all of those leases. The leasing standard will be effective for calendar year-end public companies beginning after December 15, 2018. Public companies will be required to adopt the new leasing standard for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption will be permitted for all companies and organizations upon issuance of the standard. For calendar year-end public companies, this means an adoption date of January 1, 2019 and retrospective application to previously issued annual and interim financial statements for 2018 and 2017. Lessees with a large portfolio of leases are likely to see a significant increase in balance sheet assets and liabilities. See Note 8 for the Company’s current lease commitments. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-02 on its financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.” This ASU simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and early adoption is permitted. The new standard can be applied using either a prospective transition method or a retrospective transition method. The Company will adopt this ASU in 2017 and does not expect the adoption of this ASU to materially impact its financial position or results of operations.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force).” The ASU addresses eight specific cash flow issues in an effort to reduce diversity in practice. This ASU is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and early adoption is permitted. The new standard is to be applied retrospectively for all period presented. The Company will adopt this ASU in 2018 and does not expect the adoption to materially impact its condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the FASB or other standard-setting bodies are not currently applicable to the Company or are not expected to have a significant impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to make their presentation comparable with the current period. These reclassifications had no impact on net income. During the first quarter of 2016, the Company identified that in previous filings the change in cash restricted for property reserves and payments for deferred financing costs had been reported as cash flows from operating activities and should have been presented as investing and financing activities, respectively. The Company corrected the previously presented cash flows for these items in the current presentation and in doing so, the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 has been adjusted to increase net cash flows from operating activities by $4.3 million with corresponding decreases in net cash flows from investing and financing activities of $1.7 million and $2.6 million, respectively. The Company has evaluated the effect of the incorrect presentation in prior periods, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and concluded that it did not have a material impact on, nor require amendment of, any previously filed annual or quarterly consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef